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Ukuqonda ukufihla kweSwitzerland Bank

I-Swiss bank secret

I-Swiss bank secret waqala nge-Banking Act ka-1934. Lesi senzo senze ukwaziswa komnikazi we-akhawunti kumuntu wesithathu ubugebengu. Ngenxa yalokho, izimali ezinkulu zathola indlela eya emabhange e-Switzerland. Izwe lihlukile kancane namhlanje. Noma kunjalo, abaseSwitzerland baqhayisa ngamanye amabhange anamandla kunabo bonke, emhlabeni wonke. Awukwazi "ukufihla imali" kuhulumeni. Kodwa ungakwazi ukuvikela izimali zakho kusuka eqenjini lomthetho phansi komgwaqo onobuhle obuthandana nezingonyama ezilambile ezifuna ukudla okulandelayo.

Ngakho-ke, uma ufuna ukuthola okuningi ohlelweni lwakho lokuvikelwa kwefa, ukuthola izwe lasebhange elingasemaphandleni nedumela lokufihla ebhange kuyinto ebalulekile. Iyiphi enye yezindlela ezinhle kakhulu zokuqinisekisa ukuthi izimpahla zakho zikhona uma uzidinga? Hamba ngokwakho kubo. Ngakho-ke, ukubeka i-offshore yokuvikela impahla ye-offshore ene-LLC ye-offshore futhi, futhi ube ne-akhawunti yasebhange yaseSwitzerland ngaphakathi kwalesi sakhiwo esivikela yakho ubumfihlo kuyindlela enhle yokwenza lokho.

Yebo, imithetho ye-know-your-client ishintshe eSwitzerland. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amabhange aseSwitzerland ngeke akusize ukugwema izintela zakho. Kodwa ubumfihlo buhlala buqinile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi imithetho yaseSwitzerland isaboni amehlo abo abafisa ukubona uma ungumuntu omele ukhetho.

Abachwepheshe abaningi bezezimali bayavuma ukuthi amazwe ambalwa angakwazi ukuphikisana neSwitzerland uma kuziwa ekusithekeni kwebhange. Izwe linomlando omude wokuvikela abanikazi be-akhawunti yabo nokugcina ukungaziwa kwe-akhawunti. Lesi sihloko sizohlola lowo mlando. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izohlola ukuthi lokho kungasho ukuthini kubantu ngabanye noma izinkampani ezithandayo ebhange laseSwitzerland.

Switzerland Family Foundation

Ukuthatha i-Bank Secrecy ngokujulile

I-Switzerland ingenye yamazwe ambalwa athathe izinyathelo ezingeziwe zokugcina ama-akhawunti asebhange amakhemikhali ayimfihlo futhi avikelekile. Ukuphila Kwezwe Lonke sisho ayisishiyagalombili kulezi amazwe anemithetho yokufihla ebhange njengoba kuhlanganisa iSwitzerland, iLiechtenstein, iDenmark, i-Austria, iSingapore, iHong Kong, iPanama, ne-Uruguay. Ngamanye amazwe kunamazinga ahlukene okuvikela kanye namakhasimende okuyimfihlo. Kodwa bonke banokuvikelwa kwempahla enamandla nobumfihlo uma kuhlangene namathuluzi afanele omthetho.

Uma ubheka ukuthi zingasese kanjani lezi ezizimele amazwe asebhange angasese kunjalo, kubalulekile ukuqonda into eyodwa. Okusho ukuthi, kukhona namanje "uzokwazi imithetho yamakhasimende wakho" ngokudala noma iyiphi i-akhawunti. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yiliphi ibhange oyikhethayo, ibhange lizobe ludinga ulwazi lokuhlonza kumakhasimende abo ekuqaleni kwenqubo. Ukuthola lolu lwazi esigabeni sokudala i-akhawunti ukugwema noma yikuphi ukukhishwa kwebhange ngokungemthetho nokukhishwa kwemali. Okungenani, lezi zimabhange zizodinga ubufakazi bokuba yisakhamuzi nokuhlala kwamanje. Ibhange lingase licele amanye amadokhumenti. Lokhu kungabandakanya ukungena ngemvume ifomu le-IRS W-9. Ibhange lingadinga ukuqinisekisa inombolo yakho yokuhlonza intela (TIN) futhi wazise i-IRS ukuthi i-akhawunti ikhona.

I-Switzerland Imephu

Kungani iSwitzerland?

Uma kunamazwe amaningi kangaka anemithetho yebhangi yasebhange, ungase uzibuze ukuthi kungani iSwitzerland yilapho lesi sihloko sigxila kulo. Kungani amabhange aseSwitzerland adumile, futhi idumela labo livela kuphi? Impendulo elula yukuthi uma kuziwa ngobumfihlo bebhange, ochwepheshe basacishe babeke njalo eSwitzerland ngokuqondile phezulu ohlwini.

I-Euroblawg isho izizathu ezimbalwa zezizathu ezenza abantu bakhethe iSwitzerland. Enye yalezi ukusimama kwezombusazwe nezombusazwe eSwitzerland. Izwe alilokhu lingathathi hlangothi kuyo yonke imibhikisho emikhulu yaseYurophu yekhulu lama-20. Lokhu ukungathathi hlangothi kuye kwenze indawo ekahle ukuvikela izimpahla ngokubhekene nokuthunjwa nokulahlekelwa.

Izintela eziphansi ziyi-draw enkulu. Abanikazi be-akhawunti yangaphandle baseSwitzerland akudingeki bakhokhe intela yaseSwitzerland ngemali engenayo, uma nje imali engenayo ingaveli enkampanini yaseSwitzerland noma esitokisini. Ama-akhawunti amaningi, futhi, anikezwe isikhalazo esinamandla kuleli zwe lebhange lase-ocean. Ama-akhawunti amaningi avikela ubunikazi bomnikazi ngokunika inombolo ku-akhawunti yakhe esikhundleni segama. Ibhange alizange lidalulwe la ma-akhawunti emphakathini, noma ngisho nabasebenzi abaningi bebhange. I-akhawunti ebaliwe ayisatholakali. Ngakho-ke, ezikhathini zanamuhla, abantu bavula ama-Swiss akhawunti egameni le-LLC ye-offshore ukuze kuthuthukiswe ubumfihlo.

Ngempela, lokho kungenye yezinto ezinkulu ezenze iSwitzerland idume emhlabeni jikelele webhange; ukungaziwa ngabanikazi be-akhawunti yabo yenkampani. Lokhu kubumfihlo kuye kwavumela abantu abaningi ukuba bavikele izimpahla zabo lapho bebhekene nezinkinga zomthetho, amadili ebhizinisi azinzima, noma nje lapho izwe labo lihlala khona ngokwepolitiki noma ngokwezomnotho. Sizokhuluma kabanzi ngomlando ocebile we-Sissan banking secrecy kulezi zigaba ezilandelayo.

Umlando we-Swiss Bank

Ukuqala Umkhuba

Ukufihlwa kwebhange laseSwitzerland kwaqala eminyakeni engaphezu kwe-300 edlule, ngokusho Indlela I-Stuff isebenza ngayo. Konke kwaqala lapho amakhosi aseFrance adinga ukhetho olungcono lwebhange. Babefuna ukufihlwa okuqinile, babambe izinto eziningi zezezimali, futhi ngokuvamile babenakho ikhono lokukhokha imali yabo. Ukubhekana nalesi sidingo, amabhange aseSwitzerland ngaleso sikhathi ahlakulela amakhodi okufihla mayelana nokubhanela kwe-offshore kubanikazi be-akhawunti. Nakuba iqalile ngamakhosi, leli khodi lebhange likhishwe idumela laseSwitzerland njengendawo yokuhlala yimuphi umuntu ofuna ukukhoseliswa kwezezimali.

Omunye umthetho wezezimali uphindela emuva ngalokhu. UMkhandlu Omkhulu waseGeneva ku-1713 imithethonqubo eyakha ukuthi bonke ababhange babhalise amakhasimende abo. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, yabavimbela ukuba babelane ngolwazi ngaphandle kwebhange. Ngaphandle kwalesi sidingo kwakuwukuthi lesi sidingo solwazi sivunyelwane nguMkhandlu Wesixeko. Kodwa-ke, ngalesi sikhathi, bekungekho amacala obugebengu kubanki abakhulula ulwazi. Emuva ngaleso sikhathi, umthetho wezomthetho kuphela olawulwa ukufihla ebhange. Kodwa lokho kwashintsha uMthetho weBhange we-1934.

I-Bank Secrecy

Umthetho we-Swiss Banking we-1934

Ibhange laseSwitzerland umthetho ngaphambi kwekhulu lama-20 wahlala umkhiqizo womthetho womphakathi. Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, uMthetho we-Swiss Banking we-1934 ufaka ukufihla ebhange kumthetho kazwelonke. Isizathu ngemuva kokudalwa kwesenzo akukona ukukhonjiswa, i-Guardian ichaza. Abanye bathi ukuvikelwa kumaNazi, abaqala ukuhlola ama-akhawunti alabo ababecabanga ukuthi yizitha zombuso. Abanye bacabanga ukuthi indalo yendalo yabe isabela ekuhlaselweni kwesiFulentshi. I-scandal esetshenziselwa abezindaba iveza ama-akhawunti angabonisiwe abalingiswa amaningana amakhulu, kubandakanya abezombangazwe nabaholi besonto.

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yisiphi isizathu, uMthetho we-Swiss Banking we-1934 wenze kube yicala lobugebengu emabhange aseSwitzerland ukudalula ukuthi yiyiphi iklayenti lawo kumuntu ongaphandle kwebhange. Ngisho nasebhange, abambalwa kuphela bebhange babengazi ukuthi umthengi ungubani. Lokhu kwakuyiqiniso ikakhulukazi kuma-akhawunti athile. Yebo, baye bashintsha imithetho futhi ezinye izinto zishintshile. Kodwa-ke, ukwephulwa kwemfihlo ngumbhange waseSwitzerland usalokhu kujeziswa iminyaka emithathu ejele.

Imithetho

Umthetho we-Swiss Bank Secrecy Legislation

Esinye sezizathu zokuthi amabhange aseSwitzerland athembekile kakhulu ukuthi ahlanze imithetho yabo yasebhange eminyakeni eminingi. Noma yikuphi ukushintshwa kohlaka lwezomthetho waseSwitzerland oludinga imvume okungenani yiPhalamende futhi ngezinye izikhathi ngabantu, i-International Law Office ichaza. Ku-1984, abantu baseSwitzerland bavota futhi banqabela isilinganiso esasihlose ukuvimbela ukufihla kwebhange. Ku-1998, iPhalamende livote ukulahla ukuqedwa kwezimfihlo zebhange. I-poll yi-Swiss Banker Association (SBA) ku-2000 ikhombise ukuthi i-77% yabantu ababuzayo bayesekela imithetho yangasese yebhange, futhi i-72% yabantu bayakuphikisa ukuqedwa kwayo ngisho noma i-European Union ifuna.

Umthetho waseSwitzerland awuzange wadalwe ukunikeza izigebengu okulula, noma kunjalo. Imithethonqubo yaseSwitzerland eyimfihlo iphakanyisiwe ezinkambisweni zobugebengu kubandakanya ukukhishwa imali, ukuhweba kwangaphakathi, ukuxhaphazwa kwamasheya, ukukhwabanisa intela nokuningi. Ngo-Julayi ka-1977, inguqulo yokuqala ye-Exercise of Due Diligence ikhishwe yi-SBA. Inhloso yalo kwakuwukuqinisa "izimiso zamakhasimende akho" futhi ulwe ngokumelene nokusiza ukukhishwa kwentela noma indiza yomhlaba wonke. Izihloko ezintsha eziseSwitzerland Criminal Code zanezelwa ekuthengiseni imali ngo-Agasti we-1990. Bahlanganisa nokuhlawuliswa kwamabhange ngenxa yokuhluleka kwabo ukuqhuba ngokufanele. Isishayamthetho saseSwitzerland sanezela izihloko ngokumelene nenkohlakalo. Lokhu kuhlanganisa ukukhohlakala kwezikhulu zomphakathi ngaphandle kweSwitzerland. Lezi zengezwe kwi-Swiss Criminal Code ngoMeyi ka-2000.

Ukwaziswa Kwokwaziswa

Ukushintshaniswa okuzenzakalelayo kolwazi (AEOI)

NgoJanuwari 1, i-2017, eSwitzerland yajoyina amanye amazwe ngokusebenzisa uhlelo lokuxhumana ngolwazi oluzenzakalelayo (AEOI), RT uchaza. Amanye amazwe ahilelekile ekutholeni lesi simiso ahlanganisa i-Argentina, iMexico, iBrazil, i-Uruguay, iNdiya, neNingizimu Afrika, ngokusho kweMnyango Wezezimali we-Federal. ISwitzerland ivumile ukushintshaniswa kolwazi oluzenzakalelayo nezwe lamazwe we-38, futhi isebenza ngama-pacts nokuningi.

I-AEOI iyizinga elijwayelekile lomhlaba eliqaliswe yi-Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ukulwa nokubalekela intela. Ngaphansi kwalesi simiso, wonke amabhange azothumela ngokuzenzakalelayo ulwazi lweklayenti kumagunya kazwelonke wezezimali ngemininingwane kwabakhileyo bangaphandle. Ibhange, futhi, lizodlulisela iziphathimandla zentela yolwazi ezweni lakubo laklayenti. Izikhungo zikwabelana ngalolu lwazi kanye ngonyaka, kanti i-AEOI isebenza ngezindlela zombili. I-Switzerland izophinde ithole ulwazi kuma-akhawunti angaphandle aphethwe izakhamuzi zawo.

Lesi simiso senzelwe ukuvimbela abezizwe abacebile ukuba bafihle imali engavunyelwe eSwitzerland futhi baqinisekise ukuthi umthetho wentela ulandelwa emhlabeni wonke. Ngeke ushintshe noma yini kubanikazi be-akhawunti abalandela imithetho yentela yaseSwitzerland nezwe lakubo. Uhulumeni waseSwitzerland wakhipha isitatimende mayelana nesivumelwano esathi, "Lokhu kuzosiza ekuqinisekiseni ukuncintisana, ukwethembeka, nobuqotho beziko lezezimali laseSwitzerland."

Okubalulekile ukuthi, iSwitzerland izonikeza abantu abahloniphekile izindawo eziphephile zezimali zabo. Kodwa-ke, benza njengendlela yokuhambisa ukusiza abantu baphule umthetho.

Setha i-akhawunti yasebhange

Ukuvula i-Akhawunti

Uma usulungele ukuvikela izimpahla zakho eSwitzerland, izidingo zizohlukahluka ngokuya ebhange oyikhethayo. Ukuqinisekisa ukuthi uthola okuningi ekuvikeleni kwefa lakho, qiniseka ukuthi ubonisana nomxhumanisi wokuvikela impahla kuqala ngenombolo yefoni ngenhla kuleli khasi. Singakusiza ukuthi uhambe ohlelweni lwebhange laseSwitzerland futhi uqiniseke ukuthi uthola i-akhawunti engcono ukulingana nezidingo zakho.

Kukhona amabhange e-400 eSwitzerland, i-CNBC ithi, unikeza izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene ukukhetha kuzo. A Idiphozi encane ye-akhawunti yasebhange yase-Swiss ngokuvamile iqala ezinkulungwaneni eziyizinkulungwane, ngesilinganiso noma ngaphezulu kwe-$ 250,000. Abanikazi be-akhawunti kumele okungenani babe neminyaka engu-18. Amabhange amaningana adinga inkampani yakho yesevisi yezezimali, njenge-firm firm, ukuqedela inqubo yokuvula i-akhawunti.

Khuluma nomunye wababonisi bethu bezokuvikela ukutholakala kwempahla namuhla futhi ubone ukuthi ukusebenzisa insizakalo yebhange yaseSwitzerland kulungile yini ohlelweni lwakho lokuvikela impahla. Ungaxhumana nathi ngokubiza enye yezinombolo ngenhla noma usebenzisa ifomu kuleli khasi.